Terroir – Rhoda Stewart's Journal on Wine

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Barolo–In Baja?

©2018 Rhoda Stewart

The highly esteemed Nebbiolo grape is grown in just two places in the world as a  significant wine grape variety: the Piedmont region of Italy; and Baja California, Mexico. In Baja, its history dates only to the mid-1940s; in Piedmont, it history dates back hundreds of years.  In both regions, Nebbiolo is a challenging grape to work with.  It produces lightly-colored red wines that can be tannic in youth, and can take years of aging to balance the tannins with other characteristics.


Neviolo (Nebbiolo) vineyard, LLano Colorado, Baja 

My first encounter with Nebbiolo was during a visit to Baja California in April 2011, at the invitation of Camillo Magoni, winemaker and vineyard manager for Vinos L.A. Cetto in Valle de Guadalupe from 1965 to 2013.  Camillo had asked me to come down to see what was happening in the Valle since my visit there in 1996 as part of my Zinfandel research. Among the first vineyards he showed me was the Nebbiolo.   “Nebbiolo,” he declared, “makes one of the greatest wines in the world.”

But it is a wine you have to wait for, he said, which means you have to wait for your money.   “You have to wait for Nebbiolo.  It is late maturing in the bottle, so we have to leave the money for five years, occasionally longer.  One year, the wine needed an extra six months in bottle, so we waited, even though we were sold out of the last vintage.  Again, it cost us some money, but we maintained our prestige and reputation, which was important to us.  For this reason, and because as a grower you have to understand its composition, Nebbiolo is not known world-wide like Cabernet Sauvignon or Pinot Noir or Syrah. Even though it makes, I think, one of the greatest wines in the world, not too many producers like to wait five years for the money.”

Nebbiolo arrived in Valley de Guadalupe of Baja in 1946, brought from Italy by Esteban Ferro, winemaker from 1932 – 1954 for Bodegas Santo Tomás.  This original planting, a 50-acre dry-farmed block, was subsequently acquired by L.A. Cetto.  It was later converted to trellis, and drip irrigation was added.


1946 Nebbiolo vine – Valle de Guadalupe, Baja, Mexico (Rhoda Stewart photo)

Magoni, who had left his home in Milano to become Cetto’s winemaker and vineyard manager, believed that Nebbiolo was well-suited to Baja’s red clay soil and climate.  And so between 1971 and 2006, he established an  additional 270 acres of Nebbiolo in Cetto’s Llano Colorado and adjoining San Vincente Valleys vineyards, some 85 kilometers south of Ensenada. By 2011, Vinos L.A. Cetto had 330 acres of Nebbiolo, which is the largest planting of Nebbiolo outside the Piedmont region of Italy.


Nebbiolo Vineyard, Llano Colorado, Baja   (Rhoda Stewart Photo)

One of the best wine tasting experiences I’ve ever had was of 15 Nebbiolo wines Magoni made between 1991 and 2007 for Vinos L.A. Cetto.

IMG00046-20110715-1117 - 15 Nebbiolo - LA Cetto, Tijuana

15 Nebbiolos, Vinos L.A. Cetto, Tijuana (Rhoda Stewart Photo)

We had spent the July 2011 afternoon in Cetto’s Llano Colorado Nebbiolo vineyards, and later, back in Cetto’s Tijuana offices, he invited me to a vertical tasting of all his Nebbiolos. The wines were all sound—balanced, complex, with good fruit and integrated tannins, and a long, lingering finish.  And there wasn’t the slightest hint of new oak to interfere with the wines’ elegance and complexity.

IMG00052-20110715-1342 - Camillo presiding over Nebbiolo tasting with Javier Flores and me - Tijuana

Camillo Magoni presiding over vertical tasting of 15 Nebbiolos (Rhoda Stewart photo)

Compared to the farmers of Barolo, Camillo Magoni was fortunate in that there was no established tradition of winemaking in Baja, and no elder family members to offend, such as the Barolo boys had to contend with, when he arrived in Valle de Guadalupe in 1965 to become L.A. Cetto’s winemaker.  By the time the Barolo Boys had achieved their revolution in the Langhe Hills, Magoni had been making world-class Nebbiolo wines—Barolos—for decades.  Pretty much given sole authority on winemaking and viticulture practices in la Valle de Guadalupe, he felt no need to journey to the hills of Burgundy to discover winemaking secrets!

And he always knew not to smother his wines in oak.  His ageing protocol for his Baja “barolos” was American oak, just 30% new, and for 12 – 15 months.  “Wine comes from grapes, not from wood,” he once told me, when discussing his use of oak for his wines, including for Nebbiolo.

IMG00050-20110715-1317 15 vintages of Nebbiolo

15 Nebbiolos by Camillo Magoni for L.A. Cetto – Tijuana, Baja Mexico (Rhoda Stewart Photo)

Although he never did receive the fame, fortune, and the heady brush with glamour the Barolo Boys won with their blockbuster “smothered-in-oak” Barolos, his Nebbiolos, his “Baja Barolos,” have nonetheless won much local and international acclaim. And by providing his Nebbiolos with ample opportunity to express the distinctive character and flavor of the Baja terroir, he has succeeded in attracting aspiring Mexican chefs back to the region to continue their careers making Mexican food grown in the soil of Baja, perfect to accompany Camillo’s wonderful Baja wines—top red varieties produced by Vinos L.A. Cetto being Nebbiolo, Sangiovese and Zinfandel,

In Wine ValleysA Journey through Wineries and Other Points of Interest in Baja California (Puente, Esperanza Bustillo. Mexico: Ambardiseño, S.C., 2009), Hugo D’Acosta, Oenologist for Casa de Piedra, Valle de Guadalupe, and others, write,

“Mexican wine is representative of our cultural mosaic. . . . the presence of a national wine in the culinary culture, which finds itself enriched by its native products  . . .is a component that refreshes and solidifies our culinary patrimony.” (22)

Jesús Diez, Oenologist, Viticultura – Espacio del Vino, writes that he returned “to Mexico this century with the firm idea that national wine should be recognized by Mexicans. . . I know that the very nature of wine and its soils, sooner or later, makes our relationship with the terroir and our taste for the homegrown to be reborn. . . .Wine is a dynamic part of the new and changing Mexico.  (Wine Valleys, 24, 25)

Chilean-born José Durand, Oenologist, Sinergi (Valle de Guadalupe), finds in Mexican wines an “intensity, as well as the fact they are joyful, aromatic, full of shadings and subtleties, and with a solid structure and at the same time smooth.  As happens with food, people slowly have opened up towards their wines and, as a result, my expectations of growth of a year ago have been surpassed in terms of consumption, since Mexicans have made them a part of their lives and this is incredible.” (Wine Valleys, 27)

Guillermo Gonzáles Beristáin, Chef, Pangea Group, writes,  “ . . .the development of gastronomy goes hand-in-hand with that of winegrowers. . . . To be able to count with one’s own wines provides Mexican gastronomy with the possibility of being fuller and that a dynamics is created, as in a majority of other countries, where regional cooking is accompanied by the wines produced in their own regions.  We cannot forget that eating Mexican food requires Mexican wines.” (Wine Valleys, 29)

In the fog-shrouded hills of Langhe, second generation Barolo Boys (and Girls), have found their famous fathers difficult to work with.  Yet one thing remains true, writes Silvia Marchetti in her Guardian report, “The Langhe, Piedmont . . . ”:   “When a farmer offers you a glass of Barolo that he has made, he is offering you a piece of his soul.” (www.theGuardian.com)

When Camillo Magoni  offers you a tasting of his Nebbiolos made from grapes grown in the red soil of Baja California, sun-drenched and caressed by the sea breezes off the deep blue Pacific, he is offering you, if not a piece of his soul, then a ruby-stained window into his soul.  That, too, is a memorable experience!


The Barolo Boys– Or how the discovery of French barriques revolutionized a wine region ©Rhoda Stewart 2018

I was having dinner Christmas Eve 2015 at restaurant in the beautiful Sonoma Valley, California.  My dining companion asked me to choose a red from the wine list. As I scanned the list my eye lit upon a Chianti Classico for about $45.  Then a Barolo caught my eye—for $190!  Both are excellent Italian red wines.  The price differential, however, was breathtaking, especially when one considers that it wasn’t that long ago, perhaps 30 years, that Barolos were pretty much unknown to the world, and locally in northern Italy only as (to paraphrase an old Barolo farmer) an unpleasant sweetish wine that tasted more like bad Marsala than one of Italy’s finest red wines.  I chose the Chianti Classico for our dinner, and, intrigued by the price differential with the Barolo, resolved on delving into the history behind this wine’s rapid emergence from obscure Italian red wine to Italy’s most prestigious.

Nebbiolo, the red grape native to the Langhe Hills of the Barolo appellation, travelled an uncertain road to recognition.  Until the 1970s, the region was dying from centuries of stagnation.  Barolo farmers were living in poverty.  They were lucky to get a dollar a bottle for their mediocre table wines.  Then something happened, a spark, that inspired one enterprising young Barolo farmer, Elio Altare, to take a short trip into Burgundy, a trip that revolutionized the course of history for the Langhe Hills of Barolo region, and its farmers.

This spark, according to Altare, was a hungry stomach, and is documented in a 2014 film The Barolo Boys.  (The Barolo Boys – Stuffilm Creativeye A.P.S., available through Amazon). The story that I discovered in this little film is intriguing.  In the opening scenes, we meet an older Elio Altare, whose family had farmed in the Langhe Hills of Barolo for 100 years. Altare explains to us that it was hunger that drove him as a young man in 1975 to do something about his plight as a Nebbiolo wine grape grower.  “All revolutions begin on an empty belly, “he says, speaking directly to the cameras.  “We were in real need, we were living in poverty. [Farming] was just about survival:  no profit, no investment, nothing.”  In 1969.when he was just 19, he says, they were still farming with ox.  By the time he had reached the age of 25 (1975) he was at the breaking point.  A buyer had come for the grapes, but the price was to be negotiated only after the grapes were picked.  “Can you imagine my frustration?  Nobody knew Barolo!” he exclaims.

So in 1976, driven by his frustration and his empty stomach, he got into his car and drove over the border to Burgundy, which was long known for its world-class wines.  Approaching one winery, he met the owner just as he was stepping into his Ferrari, and told him that he wanted to taste some wines.  The gentleman said he was just leaving for Cannes, where he kept his yacht.  Altare was shocked by the contrast between himself, who had to sleep in his car because he couldn’t afford a hotel room, and this French farmer.   “Why do these French [Burgundian] wines sell for as much as 20 times more than our Barolos?” he wondered to himself.

The answer was practically staring him in the face:  “Our Barolos didn’t bring pleasure,” he was forced to realize.  Altare didn’t bring back any secrets from France as to how the Burgundian winemakers achieved their success, but he did bring back a sense of a wine’s potential to achieve greatness, and when greatness is achieved, it brings pleasure.  And when a wine brings pleasure, wine lovers will pay a fair price for it. The question for Altare became how to bring out the greatness in his Barolos.

Barolo was traditionally just a table wine.  Every farmer had a vineyard, and the grapes and wine were a part of the farmers’ daily nutrition and income.  The wine sold for about  $1/bottle.  “For 100 years,” says Altare’s daughter in the film, “we had gasoline fumes [from the gasoline powered motors for the ventilation and heating fans], chicken shit, and wine in the same cellar.”  The containers for the wine were decades-old tonneaus and casks, the bigger and older the better. “No wonder the wine wasn’t good,” she added.

From wine journals being published about that time, Altare discovered two basic principles to producing greatness in wines, revolutionary principles for the Langhe Hills, commonplace by today’s standards:  green-harvesting (crop-thinning) to produce more richly flavored grapes; and ageing the wine in French oak barriques:  “We used to leave everything on the vine,” said one 89-year-old pruner in the film.  “We made a lot of red table wine.  Now, we have to leave grapes on the ground.”  This practice was bitterly opposed by older family members, who saw this practice as an “act of contempt,” said Chiara Boschis.  “There was this tension of searching for quality and more quality.  We really wanted to make the best wine in the world.”  


(The practice of cluster-thinning also caused great consternation even to California grape growers, especially Zinfandel growers, into the 1990s.)*

So the young Barolo farmers, understanding that such practices were necessary to create more alluring wines, persevered, going into their vineyards at dawn to take even more clusters off while their elders were still asleep. And since many of the best wines in the world were being aged in French oak barriques, Altare decided it was time for Barolo farmers to give them a try. “Why shouldn’t we experiment, too?” he queried.

In 1983, a wine-loving banker from Milan brought two French 225 liters barriques to Altare’s winery, the first such small oak casks brought into the Langhe Hills

The results of these combined practices of green harvest and ageing their Barolos in French oak barriques appeared in the enthusiastically-received 1985, ’86, and ’87 vintages.

Soon, French oak barriques had become a fixture throughout the wineries of the Langhe Hills, especially among the younger Barolo farmers.

Opus One Le Chai - Reduced

But implementing these practices, notably adopting French oak barriques for ageing, came with some heavy personal costs.  When Altare went into the family cellar and began destroying all the old casks and vats accumulated over decades, his father did not see these actions as a bold and progressive move towards making a great wine; he saw them as a gross affront. To these older Barolo farmers, should any of their oak casks be found to impart oak flavor to the wines, these wines were sold as bulk, and the casks destroyed.  Great wines can be aged in older, larger casks and tonneaux, since they can supply the oxygenation necessary for wine ageing.  It’s just that older, neutral casks and barrels do not impart any oak character to the wines—a character and flavor staunchly rejected by the traditional Barolo farmers.

So for the senior Altare, his son’s bringing in 225-liter French oak bariques for the specific purpose of imparting oak flavor and character to Barolo wines was an abomination. Within days, he had driven into the village to change his will, disinheriting his progressive son.  Two years later, he died, leaving Elio nothing.  “He was convinced I had gone crazy,” said Elio

But he hadn’t gone crazy, nor had the other young farmers who were seeking just such a new character and flavor for their Barolos. Young Barolo farmers like Elio Altare, explained the narrator, were ready to leave the tradition of agricultural poverty while having no wish to leave their land.  They had seen the possibilities in discovering the greatness in their Barolos through these two “revolutionary” steps, and were determined to wrest the region from the clutches of their fathers’ traditions, and from centuries of stagnation to establish a new direction.

As it turns out, these eager young farmers “ . . . were at the right place at the right time.”  In 1982, the film’s narrator explains, Italy had won the World Cup in Spain; by 1989, the Berlin Wall had come down, and the stock market was on the upswing.  There was an economic boom. Italy was riding high. People were experiencing a lightness and joy in their lives for the first time after the war.  They were in a good mood, looking for good times, and ready for wines that gave pleasure. In the midst of culture-shaping world events, the winds of change had definitely begun to blow. “After years of stagnation, nothing will ever be the same again,” concludes the narrator.   The cultural and economic changes in Italy had sufficiently developed to point where people could afford wine that gave pleasure.  The Barolo Boys were poised to begin making just such a wine, and in this way, to begin earning the living that they deserved as farmers.

Also, about this time there was an (infamous) occurrence that worked in the Barolo Boys’ favor:  the shock of the 1985 wine scandal in Italy, whereby some merchants were cutting the wine with ethanol.   To counter this scandal, the Barolo families came together for the first time ever, to dedicate themselves to producing only the highest quality wines from their Nebbiolo grapes.  They compared notes of their practices, tasted their wines, and determined as a group which French oak barrique practices seems to yield the best wines.  As the film explains it, this team effort—a first for Barolo farmers and what Altare labeled “The Langhe Miracle”—probably had as much to do with the revolution as did the barriques and crop thinning, since they were able collectively to determine what worked best for their grapes.

These new developments in the Langhe Hills soon caught the attention of an enthusiastic Italian/American wine importer, Marco di Grazio, who found the oak-infused Barolo wines  exciting, and believed that his American clients would also find them exciting.  He had recognized an interest in American wine patrons in moving beyond Chianti with spaghetti with meat balls to new and exciting Italian food and wines.  He believed that these new Barolos would become an American hit and yield riches and fame to the Barolo boys.  He was right!


By the early 1990s, some of the Langhe Hills  producers were receiving the the tres bichierie (3 glasses) award from emerging Italian wine journals such as Gambero Rosso’s The Vin d’Italia guide.  These scores were “like receiving an Oscar,” said Chiara Boschis, one of two female members of The Barolo Boys, and the first to win the tres Bichierie with the Barolos she had aged in 100% new French barriques. “We could double our prices for our wines, buy an additional hectare of vines, and recoup our investment in just a few years,” added Allessandro Ceretto.  “It changed the economy of a winery.”  Just a few years later, the 2000 Barolos received 100 points from the Wine Spectator, the first European wines to be awarded 100 points by this Euro-focused publication! 

The money brought in by these blockbuster Barolos exceeded all the money earned by the region over the previous 100 years!

The French oak barriques were key to this success, claims the film’s narrator. “Thanks to the barriques a new taste was created.  It was a more powerful flavor, more refined, fuller, rounder, let’s say, that is and was very popular with the Americans, with the ‘judges.’  This wine was made in a certain way so that Parker had to give it 100 points.  [Most subscribers to Robert Parker’s Wine Advocate are Americans] Shit, you have to make a wine like this to get the tres Bichierie!”

However, it wasn’t just the improved prices that their awards brought them that helped along the Barolo Boys—and Girls.  It also brought a touch of glamour for these hard-working young farmers, who traveled to NY City to promote their wines, and where they were feted by their admiring fans.  “How great was that?” emphasizes the narrator of the film.

Not all Barolo farmers chose to pursue the 100-point wine scores, however; and as happened with many Barolo producers who courted the wine critics’ palates, their oak-infused Barolos began to lose favor with their fans. After making a big splash and enriching the Langhe Hills beyond Elio Altare’s wildest dreams, some ten years on (when The Barolo Boys film was released and the 19-year-old Elio Atare and his fellow Barolo Boys were in their 60s) many had begun to reconsider their winemaking practices.  Many warned of the “vanity of generations,” how each generation tends to forget the legacy of the past. “You have to get back to the origin of things,” says one of the elders.  “Without the talented greats, the Barolo Boys would have been just screwing about.” Others questioned the need to go to France to find out how to make wine from their Langhe Hills.

Some believed that the traditional approach to Barolo, which used older, larger neutral casks (preferred by such prestigious appellations as Chateauneuf du Pape) still made the best wines. Marta Rinaldi, one of the two female “Boys,” agrees.  She describes how she went back and tasted Barolos from the 1940s made by her father.  “Some of these wines made with longer maceration and left longer the neutral oak casks were absolutely sound and excellent,” she said.  “So the history of Barolo isn’t written just by modernists.” 

Their reminisces nonetheless provide a valuable insight into how a great wine region evolves, and also reminds us of just how recent is this evolution to our modern concept of what makes a great wine.  The biggest disagreement as to what exactly is the character and nature of a great wine still seems to revolve around what percentage of new oak to use in each vintage (and even if 225-liter barriques should be used at all).

British importer of Italian wines, David Berry Green, expresses best the dangers of the modernists’ practices of ageing their Barolos in an excess of new oak barriques.  When Marco de Grazio brought these new Barolos to Berry-Green, he found in them a common theme.  “They were all totally smothered in oak.  Where are these wines going?” he wondered.  “What do they represent?  They were all impressive blockbusters,” he acknowledged, yet “the Nebbiolo grape, its wine, the fruit, has this beautiful capacity to age elegantly.  Isn’t that part of the joy of Barolos?”  For David Berry-Green, a great wine should evolve naturally in the bottle, not be hastened to early maturity with barriques.

As well, in his Decatur Oct. 2016 report, journalist Stephen Brook notes that while there is still a discernible split in stylistic approaches to Barolos, “the distinction between traditional and modernist [has become] increasingly artificial.” He goes on, “Nor am I fiercely opposed to the use of new oak, so long as it’s not the dominant component.  In any case, ludicrously over-oaked wines are becoming scarce.  What I seek in a fine Barolo or Barbaresco is finesse . . . .”  (“My 10 Top Barolo & Barbaresco Producers,” 84, 85)

“We did go a bit overboard,” admitted Di Grazio, “with the barriques.  We needed to dial it back a bit.” 

Wine has been part of the civilized world for centuries, yet something revolutionary happened in the last half of the last century, dramatic enough to even penetrate the isolated Langhe Hills.  There seems to be no ready explanation as to why, so I turned to that flamboyant Italian/American Marco di Grazio, whose college majors were in Classic Greek Literature.  In the closing minutes of Barolo Boys, he ponders the same question.

“Perhaps there was this world, immobile, and all of a sudden we saw something extraordinary in change.”  He then turns to Dante’s Inferno, how as a student he was “pissed off that Dante put Ulysses in Hell,” as set out in the Inferno’s Eighth Circle (Counsellors of Fraud), the section on liars and deceivers:

Ulysses and Diomedes are punished together within a great double-headed flame; they are condemned for the stratagem of the Trojan Horse (resulting in the Fall of Troy), persuading Achilles to sail for Troy (causing Deidamia to die of grief), and for the theft of the sacred statue of Pallas, the Palladium (upon which, it was believed, the fate of Troy depended).” (From Wikipedia)

Later, he began to understand.  Ulysses, explains Di Grazio, “dragged along a whole series of people, because he made them dream. Come with me to the end of the world,” he said, without his knowing what lay at the end of the world.   “And if the crew later separated, and some stayed in one place and others in another, well, that’s what happens when you sail the seas.  It’s been a beautiful journey,” he concludes, smiling somewhat enigmatically.


In the fog-shrouded Langhe Hills, thanks to those audacious Barolo boys and girls, the journey still continues. Elio Altare, who stands by his French barriques, believes that, no matter the style, “a great wine is always good”; others stand by a more traditional approach: “I think Barolo should remain a difficult wine, austere, with its at times aggressive tannins, and with an immediate lack of pleasantness,” said Mr. Rinaldi.  “Also, because I believe that in life the easy things are boring” (perhaps the definitive take down of over-oaked wines?)**  Yet one thing remains true: “When a farmer offers you a glass of Barolo that he has made, he is offering you a piece of his soul.”  (Silvia Marchetti, “The Langhe, Piedmont, where Barolo wine ‘is a piece of a farmer’s soul’”   www.theGuardian.com)


*See “Limerick Lane Vineyards” in my book, A Zinfandel Odyssey (2002)

**As Joel Peterson, founder/winemaker Ravenswood, points out in my book, A Zinfandel Odyssey  (2002), “You can cover up a lot of defects with too much oak.”


NOTE: “On 22 June 2014, Langhe were inscribed on UNESCO World Heritage list for its cultural landscapes, outstanding living testimony to winegrowing and winemaking traditions that stem from a long history, and that have been continuously improved and adapted up to the present day.  (Wikipedia)

AOC, DOC, and DO – European Appellations of Origin – (©2015 RhodaStewart)

White Ponies of the Camargue - France - in Appellation Cotes de Rhone

White Ponies of the Camargue – France – in Appellation Cotes de Rhone Controlee

I have long wondered what letters AOC (Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée, France), DO/DOCa (Denominación d’ Origen/ Denominación de Origen Calificada, Spain),   DOC/DOCG (Denominazione di Origne Controllata/ Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita, Italy) featured on the labels of wine bottles from France, Spain, and Italy respectively, signified.  I did know that European wines are identified by region of origin, not by grape variety, but beyond that I was perplexed as to what else these letters were telling me.

The perplexity lifted most unexpectedly one lovely September morning on the edge of the Mediterranean Sea.

The group I was travelling with had stopped in the village of Coulioure, France, to visit Domaine St. Sebastien, a small winery in the Banyuls Coulioure AOC. (See my 15 October 2013 post “A Visit to Domaine San Sebastien)

The tubs of grapes (Grenache) were just arriving in the bed of a small and somewhat battered truck when we arrived.  While the group went into the cellar to watch the crushing and to listen to vigneron indépendante Romauld Perrone explain the process, I remained outside to photograph the unloading.

When that was done, I stepped inside to hear what Monsieur Perrone was saying to my travelling companions.  I was just in time to hear someone ask, “What is AOC?”

“First of all,” he stated emphatically, “AOC is not quality.  It could be, but also might not be.”

I was all ears; never before had I heard or read of AOC being discussed in this way.

I wanted to hear more, but another question lead him to another topic.  So when I got home, I followed up this intriguing statement with further research in my French Wine Scholar Manual and elsewhere.  This time it made more sense, in that AOC indicates terroir, that is, the “delineated zone of production . . .with unique qualities and characteristics stemming from [the] geography, climate, and topography” that the grapes grow in.  It may also include delineation of viticulture and winemaking practices.  AOC refers both to the region itself and the product (wine) that comes from that region, and is the top rung in France’s classification pyramid.

The same is true for DO/DOCa (Spain) and DOC/DOCG (Italy), the top rungs in these two countries’ classification pyramids.

All wine classifications systems are a means to control (and protect) the quality of wines of the designated regions.   And by doing so, they also offer a means of assuring consumers that they are indeed buying an authentic wine of the region, and within certain quality standards.

At the same time, while these classifications are the top rungs on the wine quality control pyramids for these countries, in that the delineated zone of production is smaller in acreage and has tighter restrictions on maximum tonnage/acre production, minimum alcohol percentage, and the varieties and percentages of varieties allowed in the wines of these designations, compared to the lower classification rungs, or non-classified wines, the designations by themselves do not necessarily assure quality.  Factors such as vintage, technology, and winemaking practices are equally important in determining quality.


The French Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée  (AOC) system was established in 1935.

As set out in my French Wine Scholar manual, the rules for this AOC system closely define which grape varieties, and viticulture and winemaking practices are approved for classification in each of France’s several hundred geographically defined appellations.

French law over the years developed four categories of wine quality, two falling under the European Union’s (EU) Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QWPSR) designation and two falling under the EU’s Table Wine category:

Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QWPSR)

  • Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée(AOC) – Wine from a particular area that has many restrictions, including grape varieties and winemaking practices.  This is the top classification
Appellation Madiran Controlee

Appellation Madiran Controlee

Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure(VDQS) – Fewer restrictions than AOC, usually used for smaller areas or as a “waiting room” for potential AOCs.

Table wine:

  • Vin de Pays – Carries with it a specific region within France (for example Vin de Pays d’Oc from Languedoc-Roussillon), and is subject to less restrictive regulations than AOC and VDQS wines.
  • Vin de Table– Carries with it only the producer and that it is from France.


“The mainstream quality wine regions in Spain are referred to as Denominaciones de Origen and the wine they produce is regulated for quality according to specific laws.

As with French wines, Spanish wines are classified into two categories:  Quality Wines Produced in a Specified Region (QWPSR); and Table Wine (Vine de Mesa). These categories are further classified into sub-categories depending on the strictness of the criteria applied in producing the type of wine in question:

Quality Wines Produced in a Specified Region (QWPSR, and regulated by the Consejo Regulador:

  • Vino de Pago (VP; also DO de Pago): these wine regions are centered on individual single-estates with an international reputation, and aspire to the very highest standards with extremely strict geographical criteria.  About 15 such estates exist.
  • Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOCa); (Denominació d’Origen Qualificada—DOQ – in Catalan): regions with a proven track record of consistent quality are awarded a “Quality” designation. There are only two such wine regions with DOQ/DOCa status:  Priorat  – DOQ (in Catalonia District); and Rioja – DOCa (in the Community of La Rioja).
Priorat - Denominacio d'origen Qualificada

Priorat – Denominacio d’origen Qualificada

Priorat - Label Detail

Priorat – Label Detail

  •  Denominación de Origen (DO): mainstream quality-wine regions.  The greater percentage of Spanish vineyards is in the DO region.
Las Rochas - 2009  DO Calatayud

Las Rochas – 2009
DO Calatayud

DO - Calatayud - Label Detail

DO – Calatayud – Label Detail

  • Vino de Calidad  Producido en  Región Determinada. (VCPRD)  A “starter home” for wine regions climbing the quality ladder

Table Wine

  • Vino de la Tierra (VdlT): “Country wines” which do not yet have EU QWPSR status but which may use a regional name.
  • Vino de Mesa:  Table Wine is bulk-grown, usually drawn from a wide variety of regions and hence has no vintage or area designation on the label, apart from “Produce of Spain.”


The first official Italian system of classification of wines was launched in 1963. Since then, several modifications and additions to the legislation have been made, the last of which, in 2010, established four basic categories, which are consistent with the last EU regulation in matter of wine (2008–09). The categories, from the top level to the bottom one, are as follows:

  • Vini DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita). This classification denotes the highest quality recognition for Italian wines. It is comprised of a relatively limited number of first-class wines, most of which are red wines and fall within the Piedmont region, which includes Barbaresco and Barolo wines, made from the Nebbiolo grape, and Barberas; and the  Chianti region, which produces Chianti Classicos wines produced primarily from the Sangiovese grape. Chianti Classico wines are DOCG wines produced in the historically oldest part of the Chianti territory, and carry the red rooster on their seals.  In Lombardy region, Franciacorta has DOCG status for its sparkling (Metodo Classico) wines. Franciacorta is the only Italian sparkling wine not obliged to declare its DOCG appellation on its label (as is the case with Champagne).
Barbera D'Asti - DOCG

Barbera D’Asti – DOCG

DOCG collar on Barbera D'Asti

DOCG collar on Barbera D’Asti

Chianti Classico Riserva - DOCG

Chianti Classico Riserva – DOCG

  • Vini DOC (Denominazione di Origne Controllata): DOC wines are made in government defined zones in accordance to specific regulations designed to preserve the character of the wines derived from each of Italy’s defined regions.
  • Vini IGT (Indicazione di Geografica Tipica): This category is reserved to wines produced in a specific territory within Italy and following a series of specific and precise regulations.  It also serves as stepping stone to DOC status.  Most Italian wine falls into DOC and IGT classifications.
Monte Antico - IGT - Italy

Monte Antico – IGT – Italy

  • Vino De Tavola (VdT) Italian table wines whose only criteria is that they must be produced somewhere in Italy.

 In Summary

The classification systems for Spanish and Italian wines are relatively simple, since the top tiers are either DO/DOQ in Spain and DOC/ DOCG in Italy.

France’s top tier (AOC) classification has hundreds of sub-categories, in order to denote more highly delimited regions and higher quality wines.

No need to be overwhelmed, however: just remember that for each region, there is a general AOC that includes all classified wines of the region (some producers for various reasons do not seek classification of their wines). For example, all wines from Bordeaux are Appellation Bordeaux Contrôlée; all wines from Burgundy are Appellation Burgundy Contrôlée; and all wines from the Rhône River region are Appellation Côtes de Rhône Contrôlée); and so on.

Within these broad regional classifications are specific small regions where particular grapes have proven to be a superb match with the soil and climate, and have been processed into high quality, limited-production wines for decades, and whose producers have consequently sought a narrower classification for their wines, and higher prices.

For example:

    • Premier Grand Cru Classé, Appellation Margaux Controlee, within the AOC of Bordeaux.  In a good vintage, price can be €1,500, or more.
    • a vineyard or Climat, Appellation Volnay 1er Cru Controlee, in AOC Burgundy.  Prices range from $45 to €200
    • or Appellation Cornas Contrôlée, a north Rhône wine from the small region of Cornas in  Côtes de Rhône AOC.  Price usually between $60 and $85
Apppellation Cornas Controlee (Cotes de Rhone)

Apppellation Cornas Controlee (Cotes de Rhone)

Nonetheless, neither a prestigious AOC nor DOCa/DOQ nor DOCG are guarantees of quality; nor is price a score!  So while some wine consumers spend thousands of dollars or euros to fill their cellars with only First Growth wines from Bordeaux or wines with a 98+ score from wine journals, or with wines from the highest classifications of Spain and Italy, they have no assurance that their wines are the best available in that vintage or region, or even if they will like them when they finally come to pour them.  Not to suggest that these costly wines cannot be superb wines.

But wonderful wines can be found from lesser classifications as well.   When I was in Bordeaux a few years ago, I was invited to a private tour of Chateau Margaux.  Following the tour, the host offered me a glass of the 1997 Margaux.  It was a lovely wine, with a retail price of US $300.  Although just 11:00 a.m., I drank every drop.  Not being in financial position to spend more on a bottle of wine than I was spending on three nights in my Hôtel du Charme in Margaux, I didn’t buy it.  Instead I drove to a wine store in the village of Margaux, and was directed to a Bordeaux “Cru Bougeoise” for US $30.  I stored it for a couple of years, and when I poured it, it was gorgeous.  I continue to buy this category of wine whenever I can find it.  A great many factors go into the setting of the price of a bottle of wine.

Classifications are perhaps just the first important step to making the best wine purchase of classified wines relative to price.

Although there is evidence that some of the first delineations of zones of production originated in Spain in the 14th century, this system was not developed into the consistent hierarchy that it is known by today until much later, at the beginning of 20c, in France.

Grand Site Sainte Victorie - in Provence, France

Grand Site Sainte Victorie – in Provence, France

Note:  In 2012, a new system of wine classification was introduced in France. The long standing AOC (Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée) system is being replaced by AoP (Appellation d’Origine Protégée), designating the region as « protected » rather than “controlled.”

The AoP concept is to be adopted by all EU countries over the next few years.

To further read up on these changes, go to the link below:


Wines That Stop Conversation – III

KONICA MINOLTA DIGITAL CAMERA“Our Zinfandel is about terroir,” said George Hendry, owner of Hendry Vineyards on the Napa Valley benchlands just off Redwood Road at the north end of the city of Napa.

As it turned out, it’s also about clonal distinctions in Zinfandel.

My third and most recent example of wines that stop conversation was the Hendry Vineyards estate 2003 Block 28 Zinfandel ($35). I was hosting visitors from Montreal, Canada, just one year ago (2012), and tucked a bottle of this wine under my arm as we left my house for dinner in downtown Napa.

While we were looking over the menu, our waitperson opened the bottle and decanted it. Once we had placed our orders, he poured out the wine. While checking the aroma and trying a little sip to be sure the wine wasn’t “corked,” I became aware that a silence had fallen over our table. I glanced up and saw looks of bliss on the faces of my companions. “It’s pretty good,” I said. “It’s at peak bottle age.” My companions only looked at me, seeming to have lost their power of speech. Finally, one of them exclaimed, “This is incredible, exactly as I always thought a Zinfandel should taste. It’s just amazing.” Then more silence. I, too, was struck by how luscious and beautiful this wine was. It had a deep ruby purple color, aromas of dark plums and blackberries, hints of chocolate, something like allspice and fragrant earth and more, was velvety in the mouth, and had a lingering finish. It was impossible to describe in words the sensory experience of this wine without rendering it simply prosaic. Once again, silence best expressed what was happening—simply a brush with the mystery and magic of a wine, in this case Zinfandel, at its finest—what happens when a well-chosen clonal selection of budwood is propagated in a piece of earth best suited to it, and the winemaking is done in harmony with these two factors.

Block 28 Zinfandel was propagated in 1995 from a field selection of budwood taken from the historic Brandlin Vineyard, situated on Mount Veeder a few miles above Hendry Vineyard.

Established on St. George rootstock in exactly the same way and at the same time as was Block 22 from UC Davis clone # 2 in an adjoining block, Hendry had done this to discover if the budwood (clonal) source would make any noticeable difference in the wines from these side-by-side blocks, or would terroir prevail and even them out. The Zinfandel that Hendry had produced in past years from the Brandlin Vineyard was remarkably different from the Zinfandel from Block 7 (UC Davis clone #2).

The first vintage from these two new vineyards was the 1997, when the vines were in their first crop year. Fortunate to be present as this uncorking, I was in great anticipation to see what distinctions these young wines, which had been harvested on the same day and vinified in the exactly same way, would reveal. I wasn’t left to wonder for long. Even as the wines were being poured, distinctions were obvious. The Block 22 was closed, yielding up only hints of delicate red berries and aromas of vanilla. The Block 28 had dramatic aromatics of dark spicy chocolate and briary earthy notes. The flavors were of dark berry fruits that seemed a mere suggestion of the potential awaiting the consumer who was patient enough to allow the wine a few additional years in the cellar.

“The Block 28 distinguished itself immediately in the aromatics during fermentation. I was not ready for such dramatic difference as exists between this first vintage of the Brandlin and UC Davis Clone #2. I could not have imagined it” said Hendry.

Nor was this a one-off phenomenon from very young vines. This clonal distinction has held, and while Hendry’s Block 22 is consistently a beautiful and elegant wine (as is his older Block 7 from the same UCD clone), it is still the Block 28 Zinfandel that is, for me, the stand-out Zinfandel between those two wines. And it still stops conversation when given sufficient time in the cellar to fully develop its luscious and dramatic potential.

(For the complete story on Hendry Zinfandel, please see my book, A Zinfandel Odyssey. San Rafael. PWV Inc., 2001)

Wines that Stop Conversation II

Auberge de Jarente - French Basque Cafe, Paris

Auberge de Jarente – French Basque Cafe, Paris

Label - Chateau Montus 2001 Madiran "Cuvee Prestige"

Label – Chateau Montus 2001 Madiran “Cuvee Prestige”

Although France is famous for its Bordeaux and Burgundy wines, it is a robust, earthy red wine from Madiran, a tiny AOC in South-West region of France, that I seek out each time I am in that country. Introduced to me in 1999 during my first visit to Paris, in a French Basque café next to the little hotel I stay at in the Marias district, I was immediately smitten. I had ventured into this little restaurant a few days after my arrival in the City of Lights, and was greeted at the door by the charming Brit who owned it then with his Parisian wife. Taking it upon himself to oversee my dining experience, he seated me at a little table in a cozy corner of the tiny dining room, then presented me with a menu and a wine list, and did I have any questions. I asked for a recommendation of a nice red wine. He asked what sort of red wine did I prefer . . .un vin rouge fort (that is, a full bodied long-ageing red wine) or perhaps un Boujalais. I preferred un vin rouge fort, and so he presented me with a Madiran, which, he explained, was a perfect accompaniment with his French Basque style food.
Made primarily from the Tannat grape (40% – 60%), Madirans need several years’ bottle age to soften the tannins this grape imparts, and give the luscious dark berry fruit time to mature and balance out and soften the dominant tannin component.
On my fourth visit to Paris in 2006, I found a Chateau Montus 1995 Cuvee Prestige (made only in special years) in a small but well-stocked wine store on rue Saint Antoine for €38. Already 11 years old, it got an additional year in my own cellar before I shared it, in 2007, with my former neighbors.
I had decanted the wine several hours before our dinner hour, then poured it out when the dinner was ready. Since the gentleman of the couple was German-born, I felt that he, at least, would appreciate this robust, inky-black, and tannic 12-year wine. (I wasn’t so sure about his American-born wife!) Well, perhaps the wine didn’t exactly stop conversation, but it certainly gave the gentleman pause when he first tasted it. As for me, my first taste of a Cuvée Prestige Madiran by this top Madiran producer left me speechless for several minutes, as I savored the depth, quality and multitude of flavors of this amazing wine. There were elements of dark complex bitter chocolate, an array of spices, rich luscious flavors of cassis, red fruit, and rich deep red plums, and an aroma of something like freshly turned dark earth. The tannins were fine (not harsh), the finish long and smooth. I had never before, nor since, tasted anything quite like it from any other producer anywhere.
It was also the first wine I had decanted that left a tannic residue in the decorative indentations of the decanter that took overnight soaking with some concentrated dish detergent and the vigorous application of a good bottle brush to remove!
I have yet to find a Chateau Montus or Chateau Bouscassé (owner Alain Brumont’s second Madiran house) Cuvée Prestige in any US wine store, but do find them on occasion in the Vintages section of Toronto’s (Canada) Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO) stores. My last such find was a Chateau Montus 2001 Cuvée Prestige (about $60); it was equally amazing when I opened it in 2011. I have also found non-cuvée prestige Madirans from this producer (and from other respected Madiran producers), usually with 5 – 6 years’ bottle age, in Toronto LCBO’s Vintages and Montreal’s SAQ (Societé Alcohol de Québec) stores.
The problem for American wine stores, I have been told, is that without proper bottle-ageing these wines are too tannic for the American palate, and that most Americans are too impatient to put them down for the necessary years, and that the unfamiliar appellation does not support the $50 – $70 price of the best samples.
But for those willing to gives these wines the time they need to reach their potential, when it’s had that time, a Chateau Montus (or Chateau Bouscassé) Cuvée Prestige Madiran is a wine to behold. And because the Madiran region is, to borrow a word from a Paris wine merchant, “unheralded,” the cost of such a wine is a fraction of what comparable quality and age would cost from the more heralded regions.
With each bottle of Madiran, I relive my first visit to Paris.
I am now looking forward to visiting this remote region of S-W France, to walk through rows of historic Tannat vines, taste some grapes ripe from the vines, and grab a handful of the earth they grow in, to better appreciate the miracle that is the wine that comes from this important, if unheralded, AOC.

Wines That Stop Conversation – I

El Dorado Vineyard

El Dorado County Vineyard

I’ve been thinking about this for some time now, because it’s always so dramatic when it happens: you pour a glass of wine for your friends and suddenly all conversation stops. The sheer beauty and deliciousness of the stuff in their glasses has bewitched your friends’ senses. Time stands still while everyone savors the fragrant aromas wafting from the glass and the incredible sensations in the mouth . . .an experience heady and rare.
I have three distinct memories of such wines. Each is from a region best suited to the variety, and displays the central characteristics of the variety produced from vines grown in that particular piece of ground.
My first such experience happened in January 2006; the wine was a Latcham Winery (El Dorado) 2003 Special Reserve Amador County Barbera ($25). Amador County is well-known as an ideal region for Barbera as well as for its historically famous Zinfandels.
I had discovered this lovely Barbera a year earlier, when on a guided tasting tour of El Dorado County wines with Les Russell, founder of Granite Springs Winery. As partial as I am to the El Dorado Zinfandels, it was Latcham’s Amador County Barbera that stole the show for me that day. With a deep garnet purple color, bewitching aromas of black currants, black berries, plums, and rich spices, together with the big bold, succulent flavors of ripe warm blackberries and dense ripe plums typical of Amador County, yet with soft tannins and a velvety texture unlike anything I’ve ever experienced, it was a wine to set you dreaming.
So I bought a half-case, and in January 2006, took a bottle with me to Victoria, Canada, to celebrate the New Year with a couple of my favorite cousins up there.
A few days after arriving, my Victoria cousins and I drove up island to Qualicum Beach for a visit with another West Coast cousin. Lunch was almost ready when we arrived. While we were standing about in the kitchen that quiet afternoon along the Strait of Georgia, catching up on family and other news, I opened the Barbera, poured it out, and handed it around.
Although it greatly impressed me in the tasting room, I hadn’t tried it since. But before I had a chance to ask “how is it?” conversation had stopped. There was no need to ask how it was. The looks of bliss on my companions’ faces told the story! The wine was gorgeous. It was a wine to savor in silence. And a wine I still dream of.
Because wines that can stop conversation are so rare, when it happens, it reminds one of just how mysterious, almost magical, is the process of turning grapes into wine. So many factors figure in: viticulture practices, crop yield, harvest date, winemaking practices. While these factors through human intervention can be nearly replicated year after year, the effect of weather over the course of the year on the vintage produced from a particular piece of the earth is in Mother Nature’s hands alone.
These mysterious, indefinable, and unpredictable components of each vintage are Mother Nature’s gifts to the magic of wine, and help to explain why each vintage from a great piece of earth will always differ, if only slightly, from every other vintage, and why those conversation-stopping beauties that occasional materialize from great pieces of earth are as elusive and mysterious as the will o’ the wisp . . .to be enjoyed in silence, and replicated only in one’s memory.

Next posting will present conversation-stopping wines II (Madrian) and III (Zinfandel).